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Carnation Walling - Wall EPS

Star The EPS sheets are cut and drilled on a jig and then fitted to the 3/8 threaded rod through the vertical batons.

Gluing EPS

Throughout subsequent steps it is necessary to glue EPS.  When you don't want sheets pushed apart by foam expansion while setting, the best gluing method is to use a href="../Misc/FoamAdhesive.html">foam adhesive from a foam gun.

Foam Great Stuff Pro Wall Floor Adhesive     Foam Adhesive  

 Foam gunFoam Gun

You can use cleaner on the foam gun after you finish, but personally I don't bother.  When eventually after a couple of months the gun gets clogged up I just buy another $15 gun.

Great Stuff Gun Cleaner Foam Gun Cleaner

It depends a bit on your particular supplier, but the sheets of EPS I purchase are actually 3'11-7/8" x 7'11-7/8".  At the edges of the sheets I use Foam Gap Filler as it has more body to fill the gap.  You will need a second glue gun equipped with the foam gap filler.

Great Stuff Pro Gaps Cracks  Foam Gap Filler

As you have EPS gluing needs, either choose Foam Adhesive or Foam Gap Filler on a case by case basis depending on how much expansion you want.

Prepare 6" thick EPS sheets

Make Hotwire Cutter Outside Bench

To cut the 8'x4' EPS sheets you need to make yourself a Hotwire Cutter Outside Bench .  This needs to be 16 feet long.

Hotwire Cutter Outside Bench side

Cut 6" EPS to length

For the base row of sheets on the slab you should look at your CAD drawing (see earlier) as this will tell you the sheet sizes that are needed.

TThe joins in the EPS sheets are at the tie rod marker points offset by 1" towards the outside convex corner.  The 1" offset is so that wall tie holes can be better drilled at the EPS sheet edges.  At the building quadrant crossover points (shown by the blue cross on the CAD drawing) the 6" EPS sheets are cut past the center point as shown on your CAD drawing.

Over-lap corner pieces are 7'5" long whereas under-lap pieces are only 2'11" long.  This arbitrary decision to make the under-lap case much shorter provides staggering of sheets.  The row above both staggers the overlap joins and also staggers the sheets along the wall./p>

The sizes are...
    6" EPS corner over-lap (7'5" wide, 4' high)
    6" EPS corner under-lap (2'11" wide, 4' high)
    6" EPS non-corner (8' wide, 4' high)

The cutting is done using a Hotwire Cutter Outside Bench .

For the 6" EPS corner over-lap case cut off 7" (need the outrigger support bar).
For the 6" EPS corner under-lap case cut the width to be 2'11".

Non-corner sheets are kept as 8' wide.

When making sheets for a house with a lot of symmetry (such as mine) it is a good idea to make the equivalent parts for the opposite corners at the same time.

Cut holes for windows and doors

The information about where to cut for wall openings comes from the CAD drawing.  These holes can be cut using a Hotwire Cutter Outside Bench by cutting freehand following marker pen drawn lines.

Make drill jigs

TThe jigs, each made from a lattice of 2x4s, are used to provide a template for drilling the holes.  The reason for using a jig for the primary undisputable holes is that when fitting to the walls you don't need to worry about shims and/or alignment.  The optional additional holes can be done once the EPS has been fitted to the wall.

The bottom left of the sheet exactly lines up over the 8'x4' EPS sheet.  The bottom left is the reference.  Bits of 2x4 hang over the edge at the bottom and left and are used to accurately position the jig template over the EPS sheet.

Position the edge 2x4s such that it adjusts for 1/16" given that sheets are typically 1/8" smaller than a true 8'x4'.

Note that some holes are 3/8" (purple) and some are smaller (1/4") (green) (for the cable ties).

The jigs required (that are all 4' high) are.../p>

6" EPS corner over-lap (7'5")

<Update drawing - Only primary X+9 holes.  3" holes are actually 4" from the bottom >

Jig 6in EPS Corner Over-Lap 

6" EPS corner under-lap (2'11")

&<Update drawing - Only primary X+9 holes.  3" holes are actually 4" from the bottom >

Jig 6in EPS Corner Under-Lap 

6" EPS non-corner (8')

<Update drawing - Only primary X+9 holes.  3" holes are actually 4" from the bottom >

Jig 6in EPS Non-Corner 

For a sheet that rests on the slab, the wall tie hole distances from the bottom of the sheet will be...
4", 9", 1'9", 2'9", 3'9".

The wall tie hole distances from the bottom of the sheet will be...br>9", 1'9", 2'9", 3'9"

The distance from the edge needs to allow for the corner overlap (either an under-lap or an over-lap).
For the corner pieces the first column of wall tie holes are 1 foot from the edge for an under-lap piece and 1'6" for an over-lap piece.  They are then 1 foot between columns of holes for the rest of the sheet.  The difference can be handled with one jig using a 6" padding piece.

FFor non-corner pieces the first column of wall tie holes are 1 inch from the edge and then every 1 foot after that.  The non-corner case is sufficiently different to warrant a separate jig..

The X'3" holes are also provided but are typically covered in tape.  They are only used above and below window openings (and at the bottom of sheets that go directly on the slab). /em>

The jigs also have holes for the cable ties used to hold the 6" EPS to the concrete.  These holes are on the X'6" points offset by 6" relative to the wall tie holes.  The holes are 1/4".

It is good to do the 1/4" holes for the cable ties while on the jig and this allows the cable ties to be glued in place before the EPS is fitted to the wall.  A sub-jig that fits between the vertical 2x4s is used to drill the 1/4" holes for the cable ties.

Drill wall tie holes

The holes are 3/8" and need to be accurately drilled perpendicular using a drill guide rig.  PL-Premium gluing the jig into a bigger wood base makes it more accurate.  They do not need to be any bigger than 3/8" because the EPS can stretch slightly as a the wall tie is fitted.

Drill block  Drill block

Using an 8'x4' jig, drill holes with a 3/8" drill (7"+ long) in the required positions for the wall ties.

Only drill holes in the primary X+9" holes.  Don't do the X+3 holes or the 4" offset holes (used for the 12" wall case).  Other holes can be done as needed once the EPS sheet has been fitted to the wall.

You need to remember not to drill the 4" from the bottom holes in anything other than the sheets that are directly on the slab.  After the first layer of EPS has been drilled, then these holes in the jig can be covered by tape.

The 4" offset first column holes are only for use when joining to 12" cavity walls.  When not doing 12" cavity, the 4" offset holes should be covered with tape.  When doing 12" cavity DO NOT drill the non-offset holes (temporarily cover them with tape).

The 1'3", 2'3", and 3'3" holes are only drilled in the case of above and below window openings (and above door openings).  Normally those holes are covered with tape on the jig so remove the tape to drill and then replace the tape.

At center points of the building (where the blue cross divides the wall), the 6" EPS spans the gap.  This requires turning the EPS sheet in the jig and drilling holes using the other edge as the reference.  This should be all shown on your CAD drawing.

Some sheets are put on top face up and some top face down, not that there should be any dimensional difference whichever way up it used (assuming the holes are drilled square and perpendicular).

The sheets will have had window and door openings cut in them so obviously as there is no EPS in that area there will not be any holes to drill in that area.

Drill EPS for concrete cable ties

In addition to the holes for the 3/8" threaded rod, it is also necessary to make holes for the cable ties that fix the 6" EPS to the concrete.  The cable ties are used differently from normal in that they are used fully straight and rely on the concrete holding onto their tails.

These holes are 1/4".  It does not matter if they are not perpendicular but it's better if they are.  The hole positions are given by the wooden sub-jig.  The hole positions don't need to be accurate.

Cable Ties Bundle 11in 65lb  Cable ties

Fit cable ties

Fit the cable ties before adding the EPS sheet to the wall.  They are glued in place using foam gap filler .  By pushing/pulling you need to get the head of the cable tie below the surface of the EPS (because a 2" sheet of EPS will be later glued on top).  Trim off any foam above the surface.

 

Form house outline with 4' tall 6" EPS sheets

Things operate on 1 foot horizontal markers from convex corners of the outside edge wall concrete.  On the CAD drawing the blue building center cross divides the building into 4 quadrants and makes it obvious which convex corners to use.  The joints (of both the EPS and plywood) are arranged to be on the odd numbered secondary foot markers rather than on the even primary foot markers.  Less than half the even marker (primary) internal vertical 2x4 batons have angle bracing.  The non-angle-bracing batons typically just have simple internal vertical 2x4 batons.  The odd number marker batons certainly all have just simple internal vertical 2x4 batons.

Wall Eps Placement Elevation 

An arbitrary decision is that for the first row for the 6" EPS the long over-lap sheets are used for walls that go east west.  The walls that go north south use the short under-lap pieces for the row that is on the slab.

There is no EPS used on internal concrete walls and you do not want to add the equivalent thin ply at this time because it will be hurt by the rain.

Fit 6" EPS sheets

Against the vertical 2x4s put 4' high horizontal 6" thick EPS 8'x4' sheets.  They fit over the threaded rods that come through the vertical batons.

Start at the corners of the house (using over-lap or under-lap corner pieces) and work towards the middle (using regular 8' long sheets).  Cut sheets to length as necessary, but do this as per the CAD drawing rather than cutting to fit.  If things don't match the CAD drawing then find out why before going any further.

Temporarily loosely put on the external vertical 2x4 batons and add steel 3/8" nuts and steel washers on the steel threaded 3/8" rod to hold the 6" EPS sheets in place.

EPS shims

When fitted on the threaded rod through the vertical batons, there will be a gap under most of the 6" thick EPS sheets if the slab is slightly uneven.  You need the EPS to go all the way down to the slab so that the concrete does not leak out.  There need to be continuous 6" wide EPS shims thoroughly glued underneath in order to stop any concrete leakage possibility.

The shims are made from slithers of EPS cut from EPS 6" thick sheet offcuts.  Measure the gap under the EPS sheet to figure out how wide to cut the shim.  The EPS shim thickness is often the same as the wood shim under the vertical 2x4 baton, but that depends on the slab unevenness from place to place.  Use the outer marks on the slab at the tie rod positions as a first estimate as to the EPS shim required.  The cutting can be done using a Hotwire Cutter Outside Bench .

Make them 6" wide (rather than the full 8" width of the full EPS) because the concrete slab will be a bit ragged near the edge adjacent to the Form-a-drain.

You often have to keep removing the EPS sheets from the threaded rod to fit the appropriate shims under them.

Do this all the way round the outline of the building until all the gaps under the 6" EPS sheets have the appropriate shims.  Sometimes it is necessary to cut the shims around high spots on the concrete slab.

Glue EPS shims to concrete slab

Go round, removing each 6" EPS sheet in turn and glue the underside of the EPS shims to the concrete slab using foam adhesive .  All gaps between the shims need to be fully filled with foam adhesive and/or foam gap filler to avoid concrete leaks.  The top surface formed by the stuck down shims needs to be smooth so it will later mate with the bottom of the 6" EPS sheet.  Do not actually glue to the EPS sheet yet.

 

Implement inner wood shims and external bracing

Wood shims

The wooden shims are 3.5" x 1.5" and are the thickness written on the slab at the inner plywood position.

With the 6" EPS sheets removed (one at a time), make and add wooden spacers on the inside of the wall under where the plywood will be and where the vertical 2x4 batons will eventually be.  The wood spacers are 2-1/8" wide and butt up to the nailed down kicker planks.  They are continuous for the length of the wall.  Use the inner markings on the slab at the tie rod positions to determine the shim thickness required.  Glue the wood spacers to the concrete with PL-Premium adhesive.  They do not need to be removed after the wall concrete pour because the wainscoting will hide them.  Fill with glue the gaps between the shims.

You don't want any shims under where the cavity concrete will be because you want the wall concrete to fully contact the slab concrete.  No EPS shims and no wood shims in the cavity.

External vertical 2x4 batons

These will have been made earlier as they have the same hole pattern as the internal vertical 2x4 batons, but make sure you have them ready to fit.

Glue 6" EPS sheets to shims on slab

Glue bottom, joins, and corners

Use foam adhesive to glue the bottom edge of the 6" EPS sheets to the shims.  Use plenty of foam adhesive because the aim is to make a water tight joint all the way down to the slab so that concrete does not leak out.  Also glue the edges of the 6" EPS sheets to each other using foam gap filler.  At the corners and at T pieces, the edge of one 6" EPS sheet is glued to the overlap face of another 6" EPS sheet.

To hold the sheet in place while gluing, temporarily attach some external vertical 2x4 batons using washers and nuts.

The story so far

The house outline now has a 4' tall 6" thick polystyrene wall all the way round.  There are openings in it corresponding to where the bottoms of the windows and doors will be.  It is supported by the vertical 2x4 batons on both sides.  With their angled 2x4 bracing every 4 or 6 feet they should be able to withstand strong winds.  There is no equivalent plywood on the internal walls.

Prepare 2" thick EPS sheets

Cut sheets

Over-lap corner pieces are 1'8" long whereas under-lap pieces are 5'6" long.  This arbitrary decision to make the over-lap case much shorter provides staggering of sheets.  The row above both staggers the overlap joins in the 2" EPS, and staggers the joins relative to the 6" EPS, and also staggers the sheets along the wall.

The lengths of the 2" EPS sheets for the base row should be shown on your CAD drawing.

The sizes are...
    2" EPS corner over-lap base (1'7" wide, 2' high)
    2" EPS corner under-lap base (5'5" wide, 2' high)
    2" EPS non-corner base (8' wide, 2' high)
    2" EPS corner over-lap upper (1'7" wide, 4' high)
    2" EPS corner under-lap upper (5'5" wide, 4' high)
    2" EPS non-corner upper (8' wide, 4' high)

The sheets at the bottom of the wall on the slab are cut to 2' high.  The cutting is done using a Hotwire Cutter Outside Bench .

At center points of the building (where the blue cross divides the wall), the 2" EPS is extended to span the gap.  This requires turning the EPS sheet in the jig and drilling holes using the other edge as the reference.  This should be all shown on your CAD drawing.

Make drill jigs

Jigs, each made from an 8'x4' sheet of 1/4" plywood, are used to provide a template for drilling the holes.

The sheet exactly lines up over the 8'x4' EPS sheet.  The bottom left is the reference.  Bits of L shaped cut-down-the-middle 2x4 hang over the edge at the bottom and left and are used to accurately position the plywood template over the EPS sheet.

Steel washers with a tight 3/8 hole are PL-Premium glued over the holes in the plywood to protect the holes.

Not all the sheets need jigs because not all the sheets have holes.  The 2' high sheets can use the same jigs as the 4' high version.

The jigs required are...

2" EPS corner under-lap upper (5'5" wide, 4' high)

Jig 2in Eps Corner Under-Lap 

2" EPS non-corner upper (8' wide, 4' high)

Jig 2in Eps Non-Corner 

For a (2 foot high) sheet that rests on the slab, the hole distances from the bottom of the sheet will be...
4", 9", 1'9".  Use the bottom row of holes (light blue) for drilling the 4" above bottom holes.

For other sheets (4 foot high) up the wall, the hole distances from the bottom of the sheet will be...
9", 1'9", 2'9", 3'9"

For the corner pieces the first column of wall tie holes are 1'6" from the edge for an under-lap piece (for an 8" cavity).  They are then 1' between columns of holes for the rest of the sheet.

In the case of joining to a 12" cavity the first column of holes are offset by 4".  For an 8" cavity these holes are covered in tape.  For joining to a 12" cavity the normal first column of holes are temporarily covered in tape.

The X'3" positions are provided but are typically covered with tape.

For non-corner pieces the first column of holes are 1 inch from the edge and then every 1 foot after that.

Drill wall tie holes

Using the jig, drill wall holes in the required positions for the ties.  Sometimes the tie holes have threaded steel rod fitted and sometimes wire ties, but the holes are 3/8" in both cases and need to be accurately drilled perpendicular using a drill guide rig.

The X'3" holes are only used above and below window openings (and above door openings).  The 4" holes are used for the sheets that are directly on the slab.

Some sheets are put on top face up and some top face down, not that there should be any dimensional difference whichever way up it used (assuming the holes are drilled square and perpendicular).

At center points of the building (where the blue cross divides the wall), the 2" EPS is extended to span the gap.  This requires turning the EPS sheet in the jig and drilling holes using the other edge as the reference.  This should be all shown on your CAD drawing.

 

Install 2" EPS sheets

Glue and fit the 2" cut sheets

Leave the short lengths of 2" EPS for the corners off at this stage because they do not have wall tie holes so cannot be securely sandwiched with the 6" EPS.  They can be later added and held while gluing using horizontal corner bracing.  Remove the temporarily added external vertical 2x4 batons for a section of wall.  Apply foam adhesive to the surface of the 2 foot high 2" thick sheet (make sure you have it the right way round) and to the edges that go against other 2" sheets.  Fit the sheets of 2" thick EPS to the steel threaded rods.  Make sure the bottom of the 2" sheets line up exactly with the bottom of the 6" sheets.

After each sheet, fit the external vertical 2x4 batons.  The threaded rod between the interior and exterior vertical 2x4 batons is used to sandwich push the 2" and 6" EPS together while the glue is setting.  Use steel 3/8" nuts and steel washers and tighten them to squash the 6" EPS and the 2" EPS sheets together.  It's ok to remove the batons after the glue has dried so don't worry that the batons extend past the top of the current sheet.

Fill gap under 2" EPS with foam

There is no concrete slab under most of the 2" EPS because the slab does not extend out that far.  There's just the EPS that lines the foundation with 6 mil polyethylene sheet over it.  There is nothing much that can support the external vertical 2x4 batons so they rely on being held by the steel threaded rod through the wall.  Use foam gap filler to fill under the 2" EPS sheet to the foundation EPS.  It will expand out of the gap but can be broken away later.  It is ok to put foam under the external vertical 2x4 batons as it will easily break away when eventually the batons are removed.  (Never cut away excess foam on the outside because you may damage the 6mil polyethylene sheet.)

The story so far

There is now a fully glued 8" thick polystyrene wall round the house.  The 6" thick EPS is 4' tall and the 2" thick EPS is 2' high.  There are the bottoms of window and door openings cut in the EPS wall.  The internal concrete walls are not yet started.

 

Add second row of 6" and 2" EPS above the base layer

Cut and drill EPS sheets

Cut the EPS sheets per the 2nd row CAD drawing and using the jigs drill the 6" EPS and 2" EPS pieces needed for the second row.  Both the 2" and the 6" pieces are 4 foot high.  The CAD elevation drawings show the window and door cuts.  Don't forget to cut for the window and door openings.

Glue EPS sheets

Put foam gap filler on the bottom edge of the 6" EPS and from sheet to sheet on the same level.  Glue on 2" EPS over the 6' EPS.  Add external vertical 2x4 batons with steel 3/8" nuts and steel washers .  Tightened to sandwich the two together while the glue dries.

 

Repeat for the third and fourth layers

As with the second row, keep going up until you reach the top of the wall for that house level.  For my house for the basement that is a height above foundation slab to the slab of the floor above of 16 feet.  For the main level it is 14 feet and for the bedroom level it is 12 feet.  The Carnation Flooring that forms the concrete ceiling sits lower than the slab height, but this is not of any relevance to the building up of the wall EPS because the EPS is on the outside of the wall.  What is very relevant is whether there is a lip for supporting concrete decking or a balcony.  Concrete decking and balconies are also done with Carnation Flooring .  My basement level has wrap-around decking all around the house, ie there is always a decking lip so the wall EPS never goes up to the height of the slab of the floor above.  It stops 2' short.  Even when there is no concrete lip it is still best to assume there is one because that makes it easier to put a rain proof temporary cover over the building while working.

IFC Wall And Floor Elevation Basement 

For the basement, the top sheet of 6" EPS will be 2' tall and the top sheet of 2" EPS will be 4' tall.

The top sheets need to have the X'3" row of holes drilled to allow a horizontal 2x8 to be attached at the top that supports the 2x6 ceiling support beams.  Also the drill the X'3" holes for the 6" tall horizontals that support the edge of the Carnation Flooring blocks.

 

Implement external ply on internal walls

TThe term "external" just means the side of the internal wall furthest from the building center.  The internal concrete walls do not have any EPS.  The external plywood is not implemented until the enclosure is rain-proof, but it is now.

Cut and drill thin plywood

You need a different jig compared with the 6" EPS jigs because the distance from the edge is different./p>

Cut and drill thick plywood

YYou need a different jig compared with the 2" EPS jigs because the distance from the edge is different.

Fit thick plywood on wall outside

This plywood takes the place of the 2" EPS.  It sits on shims.  It is possible you may have to trim it if there is a concrete high spot.

Even though the outer and inner plywood is not glued together, it can be temporarily bolted together using the non strategic holes.  Use short 3/8" bolts or spare short lengths of 3/8" threaded rod.

Fit thin plywood on wall outside

This thin plywood takes the place of the 6" EPS.

There is no need for shims under the plywood because there is a kicker board (that will have 2-by strips between the batons) to prevent concrete leaking out.  It is possible you may have to trim it if there is a concrete high spot.

 

Make external horizontal bracing

These 2x4 planks go on the outside of the wall.  They hold the external vertical 2x4 batons the right distance apart and with padding bits between them and the EPS they help withstand the wet concrete pressure.  Here are the dimensions for the overlap and underlap cases for a convex house wall corner...

<Update drawings to be 2x4>

Ifc Horiz Brace External Convex Bottom Overlap

Ifc Horiz Brace External Convex Bottom Underlap 

And here are the versions for a concave house wall corner...

Ifc Horiz Brace External Concave Bottom Overlap

Ifc Horiz Brace External Concave Bottom Underlap 

The planks also have 3/16" holes on 4" center between the 3/8" holes in order to screw into the padding spacers to stop the padding spacers from dropping out.

<Update drawings to be 2x4>

Ifc Horiz Brace External Convex Overlap

Ifc Horiz Brace External Convex Underlap

The padding spacers used between the horizontal bracing and the EPS are 8-3/8" long to fit into the 8-1/2" gaps between vertical 2x4 batons...

Padding spacer 2x6 

Add external horizontal bracing

Now that you have fitted all the EPS sheets it is ok to add the 2x4 external horizontal bracing.  There is external horizontal bracing at the bottom of the wall and also 4' up the wall.  Fit padding spacers between the horizontal bracing and the EPS, using wood screws to hold them in place.

Squirt foam gap filler in the gap between the horizontal bracing at the bottom of the wall and the foundation polyethylene covered EPS.

Forming the concrete lip

For my basement, rather than the top layer of 6" EPS being 4' high it is 2' high instead.  This 2' extends up to the bottom of the concrete lip and conveniently provides the forming for the bottom of the 6" concrete lip.   The last layer of 2" EPS on the wall is 4' high, but an additional 10" high piece is glued on top to extend up to provide the side forming for the concrete lip and to locate the load block that takes the weight of the concrete decking edge.  This additional EPS and the bit above between the decking and the wall is for clarity shown with green crosses in the diagram above.

Check vertical 2x4 batons with horizontals

The length of these should be wall height minus 2' 3-1/2".  They should have pre-drilled 3/8" holes.  For my 16' basement the batons are 13' 8-1/2" long.  They will currently be fitted in the concrete cavity position.

Check window and door holes

Now that the walls are full height it is a good time to check the window holes are correct.

Above the windows you will need rebar in the X'3" hole positions.  These should already have been drilled on the jigs, but if not already done you need to drill these holes using the vertical 2x4 batons as a guide.

The story so far

There is now a full height glued 8" thick EPS wall all around the house outline.  The internal vertical 2x4 batons also go the full height (wall height minus 2' 3-1/2"), but are still temporarily where the concrete will go.  There are external vertical 2x4 batons also fitted.  There is no flooring yet so everything will get wet from rain.  The internal walls only have vertical 2x4 batons.

 

 

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