There are two good options for tying the rebar. Either plastic cable ties or galvanized wire. I use both methods depending on the particular situation. The argument for cable ties is that they will not rust, but in practice the wire is thin so if it rusts will not expand enough to crack the concrete, and anyway my concrete is kept dry. There are some situations where wire is the only option eg when needing to use it through a small hole on the end of a piece of vertical rebar. For horizontal rebar and simple joins in vertical rebar, cable ties are quicker to use than galvanized wire. If using cable ties then it is sensible to use strong ones. Regular tie wraps are rated at 18 - 50 pounds, but for rebar tying I recommend using at least 60 pound rated. For really critical joins you can even use 120 or 175 pound rated, but that's overkill. When using wire, it is best to use galvanized wire rather than regular rebar tying wire.
Galvanized wire allows multiple pieces of rebar to join at the same point without it all becoming a mass of cable ties. I cut the 16 AWG galvanized wire ahead of time into 8" lengths.
Chairs to support rebar
To support the rebar the right distance from the bottom of the footing trench and over the slab, it is necessary to use what are called "chairs". The easiest chair to use is a thin plastic one such as these plastic rebar chairs . You want ones with a wide base so that the force is better taken by the EPS polystyrene sheet underneath.
I modify the plastic chairs to the height I want using a small band saw.
If you prefer you can use chairs made from concrete. Concrete chairs are nice because they are made of the same material (concrete) as what will be surrounding them, and thus have the same thermal expansion/contraction characteristics. That avoids there being a gap around the chair that water might try to get in. The downsides are the price and the shipping cost.
You can even make your own concrete chairs using eg yogurt pots of the required size. If you make your own concrete chairs then you should embed galvanized wire so they can be attached to the rebar.
Spacing rebar off the walls
It is necessary for the rebar assembly to not move about in the footing trench. It would be particularly bad if a sharp end of rebar were to puncture the waterproof membrane. The solution is to use rebar chairs horizontally to the wall of the footing trench. To attach plastic rebar chairs, drill a hole in the chair, put the rebar along the V side, and use a cable tie.
Cut rebar is very sharp and also will impale you if you fall on it, so building code requires safety caps. They are made of high impact plastic with a metal plate embedded in them. They need to be OSHA compliant to guard against impalement. Detail on purchasing is here . Put them on any pieces of vertical rebar as soon as they are placed.
Also put safety caps on any horizontal rebar that might poke you in the eye. On horizontal rebar some people use the lower cost non-OSHA rebar safety caps. These are available from here .
Even when using safety caps, it is important to also wear protective eye goggles or glasses because the ends of the wire used to secure the rebar can also do you a lot of damage.
It is worth looking closely at the AutoCAD drawing of the overall foundation design to see where all the rebar goes. (Click on image to see and download high resolution version)
Here is the drawing version for the internal concrete walls...
Implement jigs to form top groove
Cross trench jigs
The jigs are implemented first because it is a convenient way to establish the positions of the vertical rebar and thus the corresponding stirrup assemblies.
There needs to be a 3.5" groove in the footing wall to key to the wall concrete. This stops the walls from moving laterally on the foundation. The same position 3.5" groove is used for the 8" thick walls and the 12". Relative to the vertical rebar, there is 2" on the outside and 1.5" on the inside. All this is shown on the foundation design drawings.
About every about 6 feet there is a 2x4 assembly across the footing trench. It hooks over the outer upper form-a-drain. At the other end it is supported by an 8" wooden cube that sits within the rebar grid on the slab area. The cross trench plank supports the groove notch plank that has 1 foot pitch holes for the vertical rebar. Here's the drawing for the most common jig type that is used on the outer footings. In my case I need 34 of these.
5' 4" Outer footings 34 off
Where possible it is good to stick to standard dimensions for the jigs that support the groove planks, but in some cases they need to be non standard to ensure they don't conflict with the rebar positions. Also making some non-standard allows the number of 8" cube boxes to be minimized. Plan it out on your AutoCAD drawings.
Here are the other jig drawings.
5'9" Internal footings 10 off
6'7" East west at corners 4 off
7'7" North south at corners 4 off
On the slab area there are 8" wooden cubes to hold the assemblies at the right height. The cubes are designed to be easy to remove after the concrete has set. Screws are only used at the top and they are covered with tape to stop the heads being filled by concrete. At the bottom, tape is used to stop the wood warping out.
Key notch plank
The 3.5" groove is formed by lumber cut to 2.5" x 1" with half inch EPS glued on the bottom and sides. The EPS makes it easier to remove after the concrete has set. The planks hold the vertical rebar in the right place. Drill 3/4" holes in the groove planks to correspond to the vertical rebar positions, which are 12" on center. Cut the 2.5"x1" wood from lumber that is 16' long. You can get two pieces from a 2x6. Join the planks together using a 1/4" wood dowel in the end and some PL-Premium. This forms a continuous plank without join pieces on top that would get in the way of concrete screeding.
Having the key notch lumber in place while pouring the concrete is useful as it will help show the required concrete level. The top of the planks will be at the same height as the outer Form-a-drain.
This is a piece of 'on-edge' 2x4 screwed on top of the cross trench jig. It stiffens the jig and provides height adjustment.
You can use a self leveling laser to get the key notch plank height exactly right. Use wood shims under the stiffening 2x4 to adjust the height of the groove plank.
Need the grove plank on the internal concrete walls too. Note that there is an offset relative to the plank on the outer footing.
Mark jig positions
Number and mark the places where the jigs go so you can easily remove and refit them to allow you to fit rebar.
This walkway system will stay in place even while doing 90% of the concrete pour for the foundations. It consists of 8" wide planks between the 8" wood cubes. It is designed to not get in the way of the rebar that will be over the slab. The planks will be screwed to the wood cubes (2 screws each end) and thus ensure that the cubes do not move and thus the groove planks do not move. The lengths of the planks are as per your AutoCAD drawing. Put tape over the screw heads so the heads do not get clogged with concrete. The planks can be removed as needed during the concrete screeding.
The 8" high blocks will stay in place during the concrete pour and concrete setting. The screeding is done off the 8" high wooden cubes. The holes in the slab left will be filled with bagged concrete later.
The structural engineering for the foundation calls for stirrups manufactured from half inch basalt rebar.
Place FootingBigU stirrups
Start with the stirrups called "FootingBigU".
The bottom of the stirrup is supported off the bottom of the footing trench by 3.25" plastic rebar chairs to the bottom of their U. They go about 4" in from the rebar edge.
To hold them in the right place laterally you need other plastic rebar chairs 9" up the side legs of the stirrup. This is done using an extra horizontal length of #4 basalt rebar that has chairs fitted horizontally to each end. The horizontal rebar is cable tied to the stirrup. The extra #4 rebar is not required per the structural engineering but extra rebar helps add to the footing strength. In practice you should accurately measure the footing trench width at the place where the assembly will go so you can cut it to make an interference fit.
(Picture shows the old out-of-date way of doing horizontal chairs and also does not show the stirrups that are now used.)
Place the rebar stirrup assemblies at 12" on center. When you built the walkway with the wooden blocks and planks you will have marked out the grid of rebar and these lines should correspond with where you are placing the rebar in the footing trench. The grid lines need to be as per your AutoCAD drawing that details the positions of the vertical wall rebar. You will need to measure from the outside edge of the outer Form-a-drain. The distance to the first vertical rebar (the corner rebar) both north-south and east-west is 1' 9-3/4". Measure on from there at 12" on center.
Place the rebar assemblies on the 1' marker points, or rather they should be 1/2" offset towards the building center so that the vertical rebar that is tied next to them will be in the exact right place. At the center of the wall the spacing will be less than 1' because the 1' grid is from the corners working towards the center.
Note that the position of these cross piece rebar stirrups along the footing trench will also set the positions of the vertical rebar in the walls, so it is worth being accurate.
Slide the rebar assemblies in at an angle with the horizontal rebar chairs held in the right place with your hands. Make sure you are not pulling the foundation linings out of their correct position and make sure there is equal slack in the linings on both sides of the trench.
At the corners put diagonal horizontal bars
These are the same as the previous "FootingBigU" stirrups but placed at an angle in the corners.
The same lateral horizontal chair arrangement will work ok in the corners because in practice there is lots of bunched up polyethylene sheet in the corners to make a relatively flat surface. The horizontal #4 rebar used to hold the horizontal chairs will be longer in the corners.
Lay 5 parallel longitudinal lengths of #6 rebar on bottom of stirrup
These rebar lengths go all the way along the footing trench all the way round. The specific positions are as per the AutoCAD drawing. Mark the positions on the stirrups with an indelible marker pen prior to putting the stirrups in the footing.
At the corners use #4 angle pieces. Overlap by at least 22.5" (ie at least 30 times the #6 rebar diameter). Use the cable ties or galvanized wire joins that are on the cross rebar to make some of the joins to the angle pieces and then on both legs put an additional cable tie or galvanized wire join just before the radius part of the angle pieces to complete the job.
Add four more pieces of #6 rebar to trench
These will be later fixed to the underside of the horizontal "FootingBigHoriz" stirrup.
Add FootingBigHoriz stirrups and tie #6 longitudinal rebar
This piece goes horizontally half way up the footing.
Add four pieces of #5 rebar to tench
These will be later fixed to the underside of the horizontal "FootingBigL" stirrup.
Add FootingBigL stirrups
Install vertical footing rebar
This bent length of vertical rebar ties at the bottom to the bottom horizontal of the stirrup and at the top to the top horizontal stirrup. The connection at the bottom is done by drilling an 1/8" hole 3/8" from the end and then using galvanized wire.
The verticals go 12" on center.
As you add each vertical piece of rebar, make sure you add safety caps on the top.
Install angle ended pieces from inner footing to on top of slab area
This step is in practice done in parallel with the following step ("Install lower rebar across slab and over footing area").
The over slab rebar alternates between straights with a bend and pure straights that go across the footing to a rebar chair on the outside or right across in the case of an internal wall footing.
The angled rebar has a bend radius of 6". The vertical leg is cut to the required length. For the vertical leg you also need to drill an 1/8" hole in the rebar about 3/8" from the end. This will be used for galvanized wire to secure the end.
On the slab area the angle pieces rest on short rebar chairs. The concrete chairs can go directly onto the 1" EPS that covers the slab area. Note that the cable ties or galvanized wire that attach the angle pieces to the chair are shared with the rebar over the slab in the step that follows.
At the bottom they tie using galvanized wire to the inner horizontal rebar at the bottom of the trench. The galvanized wire goes through the hole you drilled in the rebar. These angle pieces of rebar are 24" on center all the way round the outside of the slab. Start with one at the center of each trench and work outwards.
Note that it is 24" on center because they alternate with straight pieces to form an overall 12" on center across the slab, both top and bottom.
Install lower rebar across slab and over footing area
Rebar over the center of the slab alternates high low on 24" center to achieve an overall 12" on center, however it is good to do 12" on center for both the high and the low when within 2' of the edges of the slab.
This step is in practice done in parallel with the previous step ("Install angle pieces from inner footing to top of slab area").
This is on 24" centers (it will alternate with the upper slab rebar). It corresponds with the bent rebar that comes out of the footing trench also on 24" center. It juts out over the footing trench, stopping 2" from the outer polystyrene of the trench lining. Attach 1.5" concrete chairs horizontally to the ends using galvanized wire through an 1/8" hole drilled 3/8" from the end of the rebar. At some convenient time add some PL Premium adhesive.
Where the end rubs on the polyethylene covered outer wall of the trench, use a half inch EPS pad.
Glue everything in place
When you get to a natural point where you will not be moving things around for a day or two, it is worth going round with a glue gun loaded with PL Premium to make sure none of the EPS pads can slip from under the concrete chairs. You will also want to put glue around the base of the vertical bits of rebar to make sure they don't slip out of position. Remember that wet concrete can exert quite a large force on the rebar and you don't want it to move. You especially don't want the sharp end of a piece of vertical rebar to come free and possibly puncture the membranes that line the footing trench.
Also put PL Premium on the horizontal chairs on the ends of the over slab rebar.
Install footing top center horizontal rebar
This gets tied to the lower over slab rebar and will be used to support the center footing angle pieces. Start by cutting rebar straights to form the full length of the wall center dimensions (joining lengths with at least a 15" overlap if necessary to achieve the wall length). Drill 1/8" holes a 3/8" from the ends. Position the center wall horizontal rebar and connect the ends with galvanized wire to form a rectangle (or whatever composite rectangle-like shape represents the positions of all the wall centers).
Measure half way along the straights of the rectangle and put a mark (with a red sharpie). Measure 10.5" in from the waterproof membrane on the outer inner face of the footing trench (see foundation diagram). This should be the center of the wall. Make a mark on the over slab rebar to show this position. Tie the center wall horizontal rebar such that it is just to the outside of this mark. Tie it on the center over slab rebar first and of course this tie position should correspond with the half way along the wall mark on the horizontal center of wall rebar. Tie the horizontal rebar to all the over-slab rebar in the same way.
Use angle pieces at the corners to strengthen the rectangle that constitutes the center of the wall.
Install angle pieces up the footing center
Even the short leg of the angled rebar is too long for the footing width, so rather than cutting the short leg, it is angled to get it to fit. Having more rebar is best so there is no sense in cutting off rebar and throwing away the offcuts. Alternate left left and then right right at every 12" position. The pattern repeats every 4 feet along the wall. Tie the vertical long legs of the angled rebar to the center top ring of horizontal rebar that is the wall center, At the bottom tie the short legs horizontally to the original cross trench pieces of rebar.
As you add each vertical piece of rebar, make sure you add safety caps on the top.
Vertical rebar that goes into walls
Because the angled rebar does not have long enough legs to form a proper overlap join above basement floor level, it is necessary to set pieces of straight rebar up from the footings. These rebar straights should protrude 3' 6-1/2" above the surface of the slab. In the places where there are wall openings then the length can be reduced accordingly (as per your AutoCAD drawings).
The straight rebar lengths go down to where the original cross trench rebar bars are. They attach to the cross rebar using galvanized wire through an 1/8" hole that is drilled 3/8" from the end.
Particularly at the top connection as they pass the center of wall horizontals, you may need to one at a time undo the galvanized wire and remake the join to now include the extra vertical rebar.
As you add each vertical piece of rebar, make sure you add safety caps on the top.
At the corners you also need the vertical rebar on 12" centers.
Install cross rebar that's half way up the footing
These go on 12" center across the footing trench half way up. They tie to the vertical rebar in the middle and at the ends. These pieces of rebar are 20" long (although if your trench walls are a bit bowed in then you might have to make then slightly less (possibly even 18") to avoid the possibility of them touching the waterproof membrane). Drill a 1/8" hole about 3/8" from the end as this is used for the connection on the end nearest the slab. They go 15" above the original cross pieces. On the end without the wire hole, use a rubber thimble on the end of the rebar so there is no danger of a sharp end hurting the waterproof lining.
Install the upper rebar over the slab area
This alternates with the lower rebar over the slab area. The rebar is supported 6" off the EPS that covers the slab area by using rebar chairs that have rebar extension pieces.
Alternatively these can be made by molding your own concrete block on the end of an appropriate length of rebar.
On the outside end on the horizontal over slab rebar, wire-on 1.5" rebar chairs horizontally and use 1/2" EPS pads to the outer side wall of the footing trench. Note that the ends of the rebar droop down a bit (to the height of the outside verticals) in order to avoid the keyway for the wall.
Install angle pieces from footing to upper slab rebar
These angle pieces hang down into the footing. The short leg goes into the footing. The short legs tie to the cross rebar that is half way up the footing trench.
Add two extra angle pieces at corners
Install two extra pieces of angled rebar at the corners as shown in the picture.
Install top two rings of horizontal rebar
These inner and outer rings of horizontal rebar use angle pieces at the corners.
Squaring up groove planks
First ensure the sides of the rectangle are exactly straight. You can do this by shining a laser along the edge of the 2x4 key notch lumber.
Before screwing down the inner ends of the support lumber it is necessary to get the key notch lumber rectangle exactly square, ie have exactly right angle corners. This is done by measuring the diagonals of the rectangle to ensure they are exactly the same length. The distance should also be the same as your AutoCAD drawing shows.
Initially one diagonal will be longer than the other. Attach some garden wire between the corners of the longest diagonal and with a spare bit of 2x4 gradually twist it to pull the long corners in. Keep measuring and stop twisting when both diagonals measure the same.
After the key notch rectangle is exactly square and straight. and a self leveling laser has been used to get it exactly the right height, then the inner ends of the support lumber can be screwed to the walkway (preferably above he support cubes). You will typically need to put a few shims under the inner end to set the height to get the support lumber level. Having the support lumber exactly level should mean that the top of the key notch lumber is at the same height as the top of the outer Form-a-drain.
Check the levelness
The final step is to make sure the key notch boards (and the top of the outer Form-a-drain) are accurately level. They should be unless there has been some uneven settling. It's worth checking just to be certain. Use a self leveling laser to check the levelness.
Put the laser in its regular reference place and use a length of 2" white PVC with a marker pen mark.